Co-localization of the MPH-ASs with heterotic QTLs for GY. Co-localization of the identified MPH-ASs with all heterotic QTL for GY with significant dominance effect from three populations re-analyzed by Schön et al. (black lines) on all ten maize chromosomes (accurate scale). The MPH-ASs are represented in three different colors, according to the significance (p < 0.01 (red lines); 0.01 < p < 0.05 (green lines); 0.05 < p < 0.1 (blue lines)) of their increase in gene number, compared to the random gene distribution during bootstrapping. The three populations (Pop) re-analyzed by Schön et al. are: Pop1 from Stuber et al., Pop2 from Lu et al. and Pop3 from Frascaroli et al.. The vertical lines of the QTL are representing the genetic markers flanking the confidence interval of the QTL. Dashed lines represent QTL with one genetic marker with an unknown physical position. The maize chromosomes are shown with bins, based on core markers from the IBM2 2008 neighbor map.