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Table 3 Mean expression difference and 2× SD between each single gene compared to the mean expression of the other 11 listed genes.

From: An optimized grapevine RNA isolation procedure and statistical determination of reference genes for real-time RT-PCR during berry development

2003 Pericarp 2004 Pericarp
Ranked genes* Mean difference (C t )* Accuracy (2× SD) Ranked genes Mean difference (C t ) Accuracy (2× SD)
SAND 2.70 0.343 Actin -5.33 0.462
GAPDH (m) -2.10 0.504 PP2A 3.10 0.496
TIP41 3.38 0.600 EF1-α -1.86 0.604
MDH (m) 1.00 0.638 SAND 2.52 0.626
EF1-α -1.15 0.647 GAPDH (m) -1.02 0.630
AP47 1.37 0.719 UBC -0.43 0.689
Actin -5.70 0.733 AP47 0.33 0.728
PP2A 3.79 1.015 UBQ-L40 -0.49 0.889
α-Tubulin 0.39 1.039 α-Tubulin 1.23 0.892
UBC -1.19 1.202 MDH (m) 1.82 0.925
UBQ-L40 0.96 1.213 UBQ (m) -2.23 0.984
UBQ (m) -3.44 1.421 TIP41 2.36 1.057
  1. Cyclophilin, EF1-α (m) and β-tubulin were excluded from analysis due to their low performances using geNorm.
  2. * Mean difference (Ct-mean Ct).
  3. Precision around the mean Ct is represented by 2× the standard deviation.