Consequences of KNAT1 misexpression for seedling growth. (A), (C), (E) Wild type. (B), (D), (F) KNAT1 over-expressing plants. (A), (B) Closure of integuments in seeds stained with safranin O. The integuments are not fully closed in plants that misexpress KNAT1. (C), (D) Sytox green staining of dead cells in embryos. Dead cells can be seen in the embryonic root tip of KNAT1 over-expressers. (E), (F) 3 day old roots stained with propidium iodide. Development of the embryonic root tip in KNAT1 over-expressers has not progressed. (G) Wild type and KNAT1 over-expressing plants grown on vertical plates for 10 days. Seeds were Na-hypochlorite treated for 10 min. Root growth of some KNAT1 over-expressing seedlings is impaired (arrows). Scalebars: 100 μm.