Effects of At5g11420 overexpression on At5g11420 transcript level, PME activity, and germination of matrix-primed seeds. A) At5g11420 transcript level in dry seeds of wt and two independent OE11420 lines. ACT7 expression served as the internal control. B) PME activities in meristem and leaves of A. thaliana plants (18 days after sowing) and seedlings (5 days post-germination). Values are means ± standard error. C) Cumulative testa rupture curve. D) Cumulative endosperm rupture curve. Germination assays were performed in triplicate at 20°C. Different letters indicate significant differences among lines. All experiments were performed at least three times for each line, with different seed lots.